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JAINA Special Newsletter:Paryushan Mahaparva Day - 4
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Dear Sadharmik brothers and sisters,
Jai Jinendra!

On the fourth day of our festival, let's learn about the next three tattvas, Punya, Paap, and Samvara.

Read a moral story on how Vipul's and Vijan's karmas changed their destiny.

Mahesh Wadher
JAINA President

Punya (Virtue):

The influx of karmic matter due to good activities of the mind, body, and speech with the potential of producing pleasant sensations is called Punya or virtue. Activities such as offering food, drink, shelter, purifying thought, physical and mental happiness result in producing Punya karma.

Paap (Sin): The influx of karmic matter due to evil activities of the mind, body, and speech with the potential of producing unpleasant sensations is called paap or sin. Activities such as violence, untruth, theft, unchastity, attachment to objects, anger, conceit, deceit, lust result in producing paap karma.

Samvara (Stoppage of Karma):

The action that stops fresh karma from attaching into the soul is called Samvara. This process is a reverse process of Aasrava. It can be accomplished by constant practice of:
  • Right belief
  • Observance of vows
  • Awareness
  • Passionlessness
  • The peacefulness of vibratory activities
Jain literature explains 57 practical ways, a person can stop the influx of karma:

Name Types
Samitis - carefulness 5
Guptis – preservation 3
Yati Dharma - religious virtues 10
Bhavna - reflections or thoughts 12
Parishaha - subduing of suffering 22
Charitra - conduct 5
Total 57

Five Samitis (Carefulness): Samitis purify the actions

Irya Samiti Proper care in walking
Bhasha Samiti Proper care in speaking
Eshna Samiti Proper care in Obtaining food
Adana Nikshepa Samiti Proper care in disposing off bodily wastes
Utsarga Samiti Proper care in disposing waste

Three Guptis (Preservations): Guptis prohibit sinful activities

Mano Gupti Proper control over Mind
Vachan Gupti Proper control over Speech
Kaya Gupti Proper control over Body

Ten Yati Dharma (Religious Virtues):

Kshama Forbearance, Forgiveness
Mardava Modesty, Humility
Aarjava Straightforwardness, Candor
Saucha Contentment
Satya Truthfulness
Samyam Self-Restraint, Control of Senses
Tapa Austerity, Penance
Tyaga Renunciation
Akinchanya Non-attachment
Brahmacharya Celibacy, Chastity

Twelve Reflections (Thoughts, Bhavna, or Anupreksa):

Anitya Bhavna The impermanence of the world
Asarana Bhavna No one provides protection
Samsara Bhavna No permanent relationships in the universe
Ekatva Bhavna The solitude of the soul
Anyatva Bhavna Separateness
Asuchi Bhavna Impurity of the body
Asrava Bhavna Influx of karma
Samvara Bhavna Stoppage of the influx of karma
Nirjara Bhavna Shedding of karma
Loka Bhavna The transitory-ness of the universe
Bodhi-durlabha Bhavna The unattainability of the right faith, knowledge, and conduct
Dharma Bhavna The unattainability of true preceptor, scriptures, and religion

Reflections on Universal Friendship (additional reflections):

Maitri Amity
Pramoda Appreciation
Karuna Compassion
Madhyastha Equanimity

In the forests of Pratisthan, there lived a hermit who was well-known for predicting future events. Often, villagers gathered around him and asked for predictions even though the hermit did not always like to satisfy their curiosity. The hermit kept moving deeper and deeper into the jungle until people stopped looking for him. Two friends, Vipul and Vijan, got lost in the jungle on their way to Pratisthan. They feared for their lives in the dark and looked for shelter. Later in the night, they saw a hut and approached it with fear and uneasiness. They peeped into the hut and saw a hermit in deep meditation. They assumed that he was the hermit known for his predictions. They waited until the hermit completed his meditation and then told him their story about getting lost in the forest. The hermit heard their story and offered them fruits. The compassionate hermit told them to rest. Next morning, the hermit requested one of his disciples to show them the way to the village. However, before Vipul and Vijan left, they folded their hands and asked the hermit to tell them their future. The hermit declined politely, telling them that it was not advisable to know their future, and sometimes predictions may prove to be wrong. Both friends insisted and at last, the hermit told them their future. He looked at Vipul and told him he would become a King within a year while Vijan would die at the hands of an assassin at the same time. Outside the forest, Vipul could not contain his joy while Vijan was very gloomy. It was only natural. Back in their town, Vipul behaved arrogantly and told everyone that if they misbehaved, he would chop off their heads when he became King. Everyone in the village was afraid of him. Meanwhile, Vijan, a teacher, went about his work with great devotion and spent a lot of his time in prayers and social work. He was humble to all and eventually overcame his sadness. He no longer feared death but surrendered himself to his destiny. Six months later, Vipul asked Vijan to accompany him to select the site of his future palace. Both were surveying a deserted region when Vipul stumbled across a pot full of gold coins. He was joyous and told Vijan that he was going to use the money to buy a crown. Right then, a robber jumped out of the bushes and tried to snatch the pot. Vijan came to his friend’s rescue, and the robber attacked him with a dagger. Vijan was experienced in defensive tactics and drove off the robber, although he received a cut on the shoulder. The grateful Vipul offered his friend half the gold but Vijan refused politely, saying he was going to die soon and would have no use for the gold. Vipul spent the money irrationally and squandered it in eating and drinking.


A full year has passed. Vipul did not become a King, and Vijan did not die. Both friends went back to the hermit in search of an explanation. The hermit was in meditation. He said to Vipul, “Your destiny changed because of your thoughtless actions over the year. The crown that was meant to come to you was reduced to a simple pot of gold which you found in the field.” Then, he said to Vijan, “Your prayers, humility, and trust in religion changed your destiny too. Death by the hands of an assassin was changed to a mere wound.” The two friends returned to the village, thoughtful of their actions and the results, and the meaning of life.


One’s destiny is driven by one’s karma. In turn, one’s karma is governed by one’s thoughts and deeds in the current as well as past lives. Knowing their fate, Vipul and Vijan changed their behavior. One changed for the worse, and the other for the better. Arrogance and materialistic indulgence led to bad karma that negatively impacted Vipul’s future. Conversely, humility, prayers, and faith in the divine led to good karma which positively impacted Vijan’s future. We should all strive to behave in a manner that will promote good karma in our current and future lives.


All human beings are miserable due to their own faults, and they themselves can be happy by correcting these faults.

- Bhagwan Mahavir
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