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JAINA Special Newsletter: Paryushan Day - 2
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PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE

Dear Sadharmik brothers and sisters,
Jai Jinendra!


On the second day of Paryushan Parva, I wish you all sukh sata.

Today, we will learn about the relation between Karma and Jain tattvas which play an important role in taking us to the path of liberation

See below, explanation on the theory of Anekantvada.

Sincerely,
Mahesh Wadher
JAINA President
KARMA AND NINE TATTVAS

Acharya Somadev has given a beautiful analogy to understand the relation between karma and soul saying, "It is just like a person sitting in a boat, the boat takes the man in the direction in which he drives the boat.”

The Jain tattvas or principles deal with the theory of karma, which provides the basis for the path of liberation. Without the proper knowledge of these tattvas, a person can not progress spiritually. The proper understanding of this subject brings about the right faith (Samyak Darshana), right knowledge (Samyak Gyan), and right conduct (Samyak Charitra) to an individual.

Nine Tattvas (Principles)

1. JIVA Soul or living being (consciousness)
2. Ajiva Non-living substances
3. Aasrava Influx of karma
4. Bandha Bondage of karma
5. Punya Virtue
6. Paap Sin
7. Samvara Stoppage or arrest of the influx of karma
8. Nirjara Exhaustion of the accumulated karma
9. Moksha Total liberation from karma


(Please note, Punya and Papa are the diverse results of Aasrava and Bandh. Some exponents of Jains do not treat them as separate tattvas. according to them, there are only seven tattvas instead of nine.)

Let’s understand first two tattvas Jiva and Ajiva

1. Soul (Jiva) or Living Being Substance

Jiva or Soul is the only substance, which in pure state possesses infinite knowledge, vision, power, and bliss. The pure soul is a liberated soul. The worldly soul is covered by karma particles. The karma subdues the natural qualities of the soul. The qualities of the impure soul are as follows:
  • Limited Knowledge, Vision, Power, and Bliss
  • Possesses a body (plants, hellish, animal, human, or angel)
  • Wanders into the cycle of life and death
  • Suffers from birth, death, pain, and pleasure
The ultimate goal of human life is to remove all karma particles, which are attached to the soul. Then the soul will become pure and liberated.

2. Non-Living (ajiva) Substances

Except for the soul, everything else in the entire universe is non-living substance. The non-living substances are classified into five categories.

Matter Pudgal
Space Aakas
Time Kaal or Samay
Medium of Motion Dharmastikay
Medium of Rest Adharmastikay


Out of five categories, only matter substance possesses body, color, and senses. Karma is one of the categories of matter. It is known as karmic matter (karma pudgala). Karma particles are of very fine matter not perceptible to the senses. The entire universe is filled with such karmic matter.

Every living being is covered by karmic matter from their eternal existence. It is the karmic matter that keeps the soul away from the realization of its true nature. It is due to karma one feels pleasure and pain, reincarnates in the different forms of life, acquires certain types of the physical body, and the duration of life.
The True Meaning of Ahimsa

ANEKANTVAD - THEORY OF MULTIPLICITY

Modern-day logic is defined as the study of principles and methods of argumentation. An argument in the system of logic is a set of statements.

Jain logic is ancient. Its roots can be traced to the Holy Scriptures in which it states, “Non-absolutism is the dogma of Jainism. Every statement is to be accepted as relative truth”.

Let’s understand through an example. There is a person named Ravi. His father’s name is Prabhudas and son’s name is Amit. Now Ravi is a father and son at the same time. How is this possible? From Prabhudas’s perspective, he is a son and from Amit’s perspective, he is a father. Thus, both statements are true from their perspectives.

The soul is eternal as well as changing. How are these two conflicting statements be true? According to Jain logic, they are true statements from their perspective. The soul is eternal from a substantial point of view (Dravya). The soul is ever-changing from a modal point of view (Paryaya).

Remember the six blind men and an elephant story? It implies if you do not have complete knowledge, do not believe in other possibilities and think that the partial point of view is the only truth and others are wrong, then the partial point of view is not right.

Thus, understanding of Jain logic helps a lot for tolerance. Nothing may be absolutely wrong and nothing may be absolutely right. All the statements are true in their own perspective. Because of our inability to know substance as a whole, we cannot have complete knowledge of a substance. Only the omniscient Bhagawan has complete knowledge.

The spoken and written language has limitations of expressions. So one has to understand the broader meaning of Jain logic and then try to understand reality in that perspective. We should know all the angles of the substance and then present a partial point of view. Presenting the partial point of view, and then considering it as a complete knowledge is wrong according to Jain logic. We should also keep in mind, that when a sentence is spoken, we should know from what angle it is spoken. If we understand it correctly, then our knowledge base increases.

Thus to have complete knowledge (Param Jnan), we must know partial points of view (Naya). Those partial points of view become a pillar on which the building of the organ of knowledge rests. Of course, the true and complete knowledge of a substance is only achieved with omniscience.
Source: www.jainsite.com
QUOTE

Let us treat all living beings with equanimity and none with enmity.


- Mulachara
UVASAGGAHARAM STOTRA



उवसग्गहरं पासं, पासं वंदामि कम्म-घण मुक्कं ।
विसहर विस निन्नासं, मंगल कल्लाण आवासं ।।1।।

विसहर फुलिंग मंतं, कंठे धारेइ जो सया मणुओ ।
तस्स गह रोग मारी, दुट्ठ जरा जंति उवसामं ।।2।।

चिट्ठउ दुरे मंतो, तुज्झ पणामो वि बहु फलो होइ ।
नरतिरिएसु वि जीवा, पावंति न दुक्ख-दोगच्चं।।3।।

तुह सम्मत्ते लद्धे, चिंतामणि कप्पपाय वब्भहिए ।
पावंति अविग्घेणं, जीवा अयरामरं ठाणं ।।4।।

इअ संथुओ महायस, भत्तिब्भर निब्भरेण हिअएण ।
ता देव दिज्ज बोहिं, भवे भवे पास जिणचंद ।।5।।
WHAT IS FORGIVENESS ?

To understand forgiveness in-depth and to comprehend the essence of Paryushan, please view the beautiful slides with footnotes on this topic by clicking on the box "Read more"

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