the principal concept of Jainism. It is
the first and foremost duty among six essential duties of a monk as well as of
a householder. Prakrta term Samaiya is translated into English in various ways
such as observance of equanimity, viewing all the living beings as one's own
self, conception of equality, harmonious state of one's behavior, integration
of personality as well as righteousness of the activities of mind, body and
kunda also used the term samahi. It is a Prakrta word, its Sanskrita word is
samadhi, in the sense of samayika, where it means a tensionless state of
consciousness or a state of self-absorption.
general sense the word samayika means a particular religious practice through
which one can attain equanimity of mind.
It is end as well as means in itself.
As a means it is a practice for attaining equanimity while as an end it
is the state in which self is completely free from the flickering of
alternative desires and wishes as well as excitements and emotional
disorders. It is the state of
self-absorption or resting in one's own self.
In Avasyaka-niryuti it is mentioned that the samayika is nothing but
one's own self in its pure form.
transcendental point of view Samayika means realization of our own self in its
real nature. It is the state in which
one is completely free from attachment and aversion. In the same work Arya Bhadra also mentions
various synonyms of samayika. According
to him equanimity, equality, righteousness, state of self‑absorption, purity,
peace, welfare, happiness are the different names of samayika.
and Kundakunda's Niyamasara,
Samayika is explained in various ways.
It is said that one who by giving up the movement of uttering words,
realizes himself with non‑attachment is said to have supreme equanimity. He, who detached from all injurious, observes
threefold control of body, mind and speech and restrains his senses, is said to
have attained equanimity. One, who behaves equally as one's own self
towards all living beings mobile and immobile, is said to have equanimity.
Further, it is said that one who observes self‑control, vows and austerities,
one in whom attachment and aversion do not cause any disturbance or tension and
one who always refrains indulgence, sorrow and ennui, is said to have attained
equanimity or Samayika.
of equanimity is equated with religion it self.
In Acaranga Sutra, it is said that all the worthy people preach religion
as equanimity. Thus, for Jainas, the observance of religious
life, is nothing, but the practice for the attainment of equanimity. According to them, it is the essence of all
types of religious activities and they all, are prescribed only to attain
it. Not only in Jainism but in Hinduism
also, we find various references in support of equanimity. Gita defines yoga as equanimity. Similarly in Bhagvat it is said that the
observance of equanimity is the worship of Lord.
frame‑work of Jain religious practise (sadhana) has been built on the
foundation of samayika i.e. the practice for equanimity. All the religious tenets are made for it.
Acarya Haribhadra maintains that one who observes the equanimity (samabhava)
will surely attain the emancipation, whether he belongs to Swetambara sect or
Digambara sect, whether he is Bauddha or the follower of any other religion. It is said in Jaina religious texts that one
who observes hard penance and austerities such as eating once in a month or two
as well as one who make the donations of millions of golden coins every day,
can not attain emancipation unless he attains equanimity. It is only through the attainment of
equanimity of mind that one can get emancipation or liberation. Acarya Kunda-Kund says what is the use of
residing in forest, mortification of body, observance of various fasts, study
of scriptures and keeping silence etc. to a saint, who is devoid of equanimity. Now we come to the next question that how one
can attain this equanimity of mind. Mere verbal saying that I shall observe the
equanimity of mind and refrain from all types of injurious activities does not
have any meaning unless we seriously practices it in our own life.
first of all one should know that what are the causes which disturb our
equanimity of mind and then one should try to eradicate them.
Though it is
very easy to say that one should observe the equanimity of mind, but in
practice it is very difficult to attain it.
For our mental faculty is always in grip of attachment and
aversion. What so ever we think or do,
are always motivated by either attachment or aversion. The vectors of
attachment and aversion are solely responsible for the disturbance of mental
equanimity and so the practice to attain equanimity depends on the eradication
of attachment and aversion. So long as
we do not eradicate the attachment and aversion, we are unable to attain equanimity.
attention turns to the eradication of attachment and aversion. How we can get rid of these two enemies of
equanimity. Attachment is an another
name of mineness and this mineness can only be vanished through the
contemplation of ektva bhavana and Anyatva bhavana i.e. nothing is mine except
my own self.
Aurapaccakhana it is clearly mentioned that, if we want to conquer the mineness
we must have to contemplate on the transitory nature of worldly things as well
as of our own body. One, who perceives
that one's death is closer and closer every moment, only one can see the things
in their right perspective. Samyak‑darsana
is nothing but to have a proper understanding of the worldly thing. One who perceives one's own death and
transitory nature of things can never be attached to them. When mineness disappears, otherness also
disappears. For these two are the relative terms and without one other also
loses its meaning and when the idea of mineness as well as otherness dissolves
attachment and aversion disappears and equanimity dawns.
There is only
one way to attain the equanimity of mind.
It is through the contemplation of real nature of one's own self as well
as of worldly things, one can eradicate the vectors of attachment and aversion
and thus attain equanimity. Also it is
through self‑awareness that one can be steady and firm in the state of
equanimity or self‑absorption. Equanimity needs proper understanding of real
nature of one's own self as well as of others.
Niyamasara, it is said that one who meditates in one's own real nature with non‑attached
thought, activity and realizes his self through righteous and pure
concentration can attain the supreme equanimity. One, who always practices the dharma dhyana
(righteous meditation) and Sukla dhyana (meditation of Pure‑form or real
nature) can attain the equanimity. Thus,
samayika is closely related to meditation, without meditation and self‑awareness
no one can attain the equanimity of mind. Kund kunda further maintains that one
who is absorbed in righteous and pure meditation is the Antaratma or sadhaka
and one who is devoid of such contemplation or meditation is called
Bahiratma. The realization of self is
only possible through equanimity and equanimity is only possible through the
meditation of one's own real nature.
At last I
would like to conclude my paper by quoting a beautiful verse of religious
tolerance of Acarya Amitagati ‑
maitrim gunisa pramodam klistesu Jivesa Krapapartvam Madhyasthyabhavam Viparita
Vrattan Sada mamatma Vidhadhatudeva.
"Oh Lord. I
should be friendly to all the creatures of world and feel delight in meeting
the virtuous people. I should always be
helpful to those who are in miserable conditions and tolerant to my opponents."
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